Evaluierung der Beratungsqualität der Ausländerbehörde an der Universität und der Stadt Kassel (German Edition) eBook: Christian Meier: phichamhokouda.ga: site. Evaluierung der Beratungsqualität der Ausländerbehörde an der Universität und der Stadt Kassel (German Edition) - site edition by Christian Meier. Editorial Reviews. From the Back Cover. Dieses Lehrbuch beschäftigt sich mit den Grundlagen, site Store · site eBooks · Business & Money . und des Fachbereichs Elektrotechnik/Informatik an der Universität Kassel. Leimeister forscht.
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Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Die Autorin Graciette Justo ist Diplom- Sozialpädagogin site Store; ›; site eBooks; ›; Education & Teaching . Jahr im Fachbereich Sozialpädagogik / Sozialarbeit, Note: 1,3, Universität Kassel. Information from WorldCat about Universitätsbibliothek Kassel, Email: direktion @phichamhokouda.ga eBook: Document: Government publication. Author profile. Josefine Richter. eBooks: 1; Institution / College: Universität Kassel; Profession: Student; Author since: 3/13/ Info. Profession: Student; Author.
In-depth analyses show that the human influence is the major cause for the current increase in global mean temperature IPCC, f. There is scientific proof for human influence on climate change. In the course of industrialization, the global mean temperature has increased by 0.
According to IPCC scenarios, global mean temperatures might rise between 1. GHGs like water vapor, CO2 and methane have a warming effect on this radiation balance. Thus, this effect is essential for life on earth but in the same time it is highly sensitive to changes. According to the laws of physics, doubling the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere leads to an increase of global mean temperatures by 1. Neglecting anthropogenic GHGs in modeling global temperature evolution and using only natural GHGs for radiative forcings, the modeled temperature rise does not match the actual temperature rise Figure 1.
Therefore, it is evident that the current increase of GHGs and global warming are results of human activities.
Figure 1. Temperature anomalies in global mean temperature measured black line and modeled as a result of radiative forcing a — natural and anthropogenic forcings modeled — red line, b - only natural forcing modeled — blue line. The cooling effect of volcanic aerosols can be clearly noted as well as the warming effect of GHGs due to human activities, dominated by combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation.
IPCC, f , p. This correlation can be exceeded into the past. Air bubbles trapped in ice cores give detailed information about temperature and GHG concentration going back until , years ago.
The past , years - which are the documented best - cover four glacial-interglacial cycles IPCC, f , p. Concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere show a good correlation with air-temperature throughout the recorded time period.
Today, the atmospheric concentration of CO2 and CH4 exceeds by far the level of past , years. CO2 concentration amount to ppm in , far higher than the maximum concentration of ppm in that period with a strong increasing tendency Trans, ; CDIAC, ; Petit et al.
The main driver of GHG emission growth is the energy sector: IPCC, d , p. Growth of global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels in Gt CO2 per year , without emissions from gas flaring and cement production.
These figures correspond to the light red share in below Figure 1. In reality, the industry pie splits in CO2 from industrial fossil energy use and CO2 from production of goods from materials that emit CO2 during their processing. In this thesis, CO2 from industry processes are only taken into consideration in chapter 4.
IPCC, g , p. Bioenergy plays a rather crucial role in GHG emissions, since it is affecting not one single but all important emission sources like energy and land use caused by agriculture or forestry. It also affects gases like CO2 substituting fossil fuels on one hand, possible support of deforestation and land-use change on the other hand , CH4 agriculture and poor combustion of biomass and N2O fertilizers and poor combustion of biomass.
Fritsche, ; Fritsche et al. In developing countries, no GHG emissions are accounted for bioenergy production at all. Anthropogenic global warming affects natural systems and is a threat to nature and human society. Already today, many events are measurable and can be related to global warming. The impacts of climate change can be derived from climatic indicators like temperature, precipitation, sea level and number of extreme weather events IPCC, f.
The increased global mean temperature has caused e.
Oceans are affected too. They are taking up one third of the emitted CO2 while only two-thirds are left in the atmosphere. For that reason, oceans became more acidic, which is increasing coral mortality.
Sea level rose by cm in the 20th century, which has not been the case in the previous one thousand years. Global warming caused a rise of 3mm per year between IPCC, f , p.
Extreme weather events like tropical cyclones, heat waves, draughts and floods have increased in number and intensity in the past decades. The heat wave in Europe caused about 30, to 50, deaths. Precipitation patterns have changed in the last decades, resulting e.
In , an extreme hurricane season has brought the catastrophe of New Orleans in the US, while two tropical storms took an unusual way and arrived in Europe in the Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. The increased number and intensity of tropical cyclones is likely due to increased ocean temperatures, which are related directly to global warming WBGU, The observed impacts are projected to increase and intensify in the future.
Major projected threats of global warming are negative consequences like extreme weather events, vanishing water reserves, harvest failures and destroyed living habitats IPCC, b , p.
It is likely that droughts and floods increase in frequency with all their negative impacts on nature and society. Water supply stored in snow cover and glaciers is projected to decline in this century, reducing water availability for more than a sixth of the current global population.
Ecosystems may loose their capacity of uptaking carbon and thus amplify global warming. It is expected, that especially developing countries — which are not the causer - will be affected negatively by climate change, since their capacity to adopt is rather low.
Political tensions caused by this injustice are likely to arise. Health related problems like malnutrition and diseases as well as death due to extreme weather events will challenge societies. These projections are based on smooth trends, which allow systematic risk assessments. Such events could be the melting of the Greenland ice sheet, the weakening of the thermo-haline circulation in the Atlantic, the collapse of the site rainforest or a transformation of monsoon in South-Asia, which in the worst case influence each other.
The melting of the Greenland ice sheet could lead to a break down of the Gulf Stream by flushing melted freshwater into it. This would lead to a sea level increase of approximately 7m, flooding many densely populated coastal regions around the world WBGU, If climate protection fails, the global sea level is predicted to rise half a meter by the year IPCC, f , p.
All of these predictions reveal the vulnerability of life and nature by the impacts of climate change. Consequently, a comprehensive and ambitious reduction of GHG emissions is the major task for our generation and vital for future generations. The necessary reduction of GHG emissions will challenge humanity. Essential steps will be the transformation of energy systems and the implementation of sustainable land use.
To meet these goals, binding international GHG reduction goals and burden sharing among all nations are necessary. Various mitigation technologies like renewable energy are commercially available. Bioenergy affects both major emitting sectors energy and land use and has therefore a special role in climate protection. Two possible future scenarios: One in which no climate policies are implemented red , and one with strong actions to mitigate emissions blue.
Shown are fossil CO2 emissions top panel and corresponding global warming bottom panel. The shown mitigation pathway limits fossil and land-use related CO2 emissions to 1, billion tons CO2. Ebooka przeczytasz na: Kindlu MOBI. Dlaczego warto?
Pobierz fragment dostosowany na: Bioenergy is analyzed in the broader context of climate change, energy systems and land use. A techno-economic and ecologic analysis of 78 bioenergy pathways is done in order to identify the strategic role of bioenergy in future energy systems. For the first time, both traditional and modern biomass pathways are compared in a single assessment, identifying the range of maximum greenhouse gas reduction potential of bioenergy.
However, the identified bioenergy potential is neither sufficient to balance fluctuating renewable power nor to fully replace fossil fuels in heat and transport on a global scale. I spent a whole day selecting the most interesting drawings. It was a wonderful experience that opened my eyes to a new world. In the last 10 years I have the feeling of being in a long journey. I like to discover the cities where I live, to understand why a place is the way it is and what makes it different and unique from others.
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