Anxiety & Depression Workbook For Dummies® Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo, For Dummies, the Dummies Man. Title: Auriculotherapy manual Chinese and Western systems of ear acupuncture. I have known Dr Terry Oleson for a number of years and I am very pleased to have been asked to write some lines of introduction for the third edition of the Auriculotherapy Manual: Chinese and Western. Auriculotherapy Manual Chinese and Western Systems of Ear Acupuncture, Third Edition - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book.
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phichamhokouda.ga - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. PDF. Book review. Auriculotherapy manual: Chinese and Western systems of ear He is the present and founding President of the Auriculotherapy Certification. Auriculotherapy manual: Chinese and Western systems of ear acupuncture. Oleson T. Published by Churchill Livingstone. Elsevier, 4th edition.
During the medieval period in Europe. Prescriptions for emergencies. As late as Their solution was opium. Communist atheists also rejected the metaphysical. The Chinese were impressed by Western science and by European biological discoveries. Because the Occidental traders had more powerful weapons than the Chinese. The human being is regarded as a unified. Since the Cultural Revolution dispelled these erroneous ideas. Opium houses then proliferated and the Chinese lost a sense of confidence in uniquely Oriental medical discoveries.
The Chinese should probably have imported European weapons. With little plastic models of the inverted fetus mapped onto the ear. It was from these rural routes that Mao derived his military power.
Chinese officials burned a warehouse of the British East India Company stocked with smuggled opium.
Auriculotherapy Manual Chinese And Western Systems Of Ear Acupuncture
By the s. Although ear acupuncture was used across China prior to learning of Nogier's treatise on the subject. They spread erroneous ideas. As a result. Acupuncture had declined in the large cities of China. Another historian of Chinese medicine. Huang It was fortuitous that the discoveries of the ear reflex charts by Paul Nogier arrived in China in Mao Tse Tung called for a revitalization of ancient Chinese methods for health and healing.
The Chinese government attempted to suppress the teaching of Oriental medicine as unscientific. After the Communist revolution in Gong Sun Chen has confirmed that it was only after the Chinese learned of Nogier's inverted fetus picture of auricular points that great changes in the practice of ear acupuncture occurred.
The germ theory of Western medicine came to have greater relevance for health than the energetic theory of qi. Their report on the success of ear acupuncture for several thousand different types of patients provided scientific replication of Nogier's work and led to broad inclusion of this approach in traditional Chinese medicine.
The method of ear acupuncture is based on the fundamental principle of the unity of opposites. Disease is the result of struggle between contradictions.
Jesuit missionaries in China utilized the dissemination of Western medications as a manifestation of the superiority of their Christian faith.
By applying Chairman Mao's brilliant philosophical ideas. The so-called barefoot doctors. Europe became embroiled in World War II. Antiseptic practices that had been introduced from Europe greatly reduced post-surgical infections. The Nanjing division of the medical unit of Chinese military enlisted acupuncturists from all over the country to examine and to treat thousands of patients with this somatotopic auricular acupuncture protocol.
They were forced to pay substantial sums of currency for the lost British opium and to surrender the territory of Hong Kong. Distortions may have appeared in the transmission of ear maps from France to Germany to Japan to China. Inaccuracies could have been due to mistranslation between European and Asian languages. A 16th-century physician working for the Dutch East India Company.
Medical interest in acupuncture waxed and waned in Europe over the following centuries. Stationed in Nanjing and Shanghai. Gustaf Landgaren of Sweden conducted acupuncture experiments on animals and on human volunteers at the University of Uppsala in In the 19th century. Given that it was Western merchants who supported widespread opium abuse in China. Huang also included more metaphysical influences in Chinese thought. Dr Willem Te Rhyne. This committee designated the localization of 91 auricular points.
Wen subsequently studied a larger sample of opium and heroin addicts who were given auricular electroacupuncture. From to Chinese conferences completely devoted to research investigations of ear acupuncture were held in Sporadic reports of the use of acupuncture needles were included in European medical writings for the next several centuries.
The Shen Men and Lung ear points used for acupuncture analgesia also affected drug detoxification. It was in the early s that interest in acupuncture was once again revived in Europe. Auricular points in China are selected according to several factors: It would elicit great excitement. There are distinct discrepancies between Oriental and Western ear charts. The Chinese.
Having used ear acupuncture for postoperative symptoms. Medical conditions were grouped into three categories: Of intriguing historical note.
Nogier was 'intrigued by a strange scar which certain patients had in the external ear. Nogier conjectured that the upper antihelix area used to treat sciatica could correspond to the lumbosacral joint. Only one of the patients failed to dramatically improve. Pierre Schmidt. Reproduced from Nogier Mme Barrin had learned of this auricular procedure from her father.
He taught Chinese medical procedures to physicians throughout France. The patients were unanimous in stating that they had been successfully relieved of sciatic pain within hours. A quotation attributed to the physiologist Claude Bernard further inspired Nogier: It has often been said. Nogier stated: T then proceeded to carry out some cauterizations myself. It was not until a century later.
A discovety is usually an unexpected connection. It is better to know nothing than to have certain fixed ideas in one's mind. Some critics have contended that Nogier developed his ear maps based on translation of Chinese writings. Another mentor for Nogier was the Swiss homeopathic physician. A discovety is rarely logical and often goes against the conceptions then in fashion. Nogier discussed his antihelix cauterization experiences with another physician.
Nogier's ear reflex system was soon known by acupuncturists in Japan. It is possible to palpate for tender areas of the ear and readily notice how they correspond to painful areas of the body.
From these translations into German. Nogier mentioned his discoveries to Dr Jacques Niboyet. The head would have its correspondence lower on the auricle. They are indeed fortunate people who can convince themselves simply by noting the improvement of a symptom they themselves have experienced The primary change that he brought to auricular acupuncture in was that these ear acupoints were not just a scattered array of different points for different conditions.
Nogier limited his classic Treatise of auriculotherapy to the spinal column and the limbs because the musculoskeletal body is projected onto the external ear in a clear and simple manner. To push on to the bottom of this discovery is to accomplish another.
Each doctor needs to be convinced of the efficacy of this ear reflex method by personal results that he or she is tight. Niboyet was struck by this novel ear reflex zone. One of the attendees of this meeting. Dr Gerard Bachmann of Munich. The therapeutic applications are free from ambiguity and ought to allow the beginner to achieve convincing results. Nogier acknowledged in his own writings that the origins of auriculotherapy might have begun in China or in Persia. Figure 1.
Nogier concluded that the pain relief was not due to a nervous reaction to the pain from needle insertion. The first stages of learning the map of the ear consist of getting to know the morphology of the external ear. Niboyet encouraged Nogier to present his findings to the Congress of the Mediterranean Society of Acupuncture in February The ear could thus roughly resemble an upside down embryo in utero.
Using electrical microcurrents imperceptible to the patient. Nogier subsequently obtained pain relief for other problems. Similar autonomic reactions to touching sensitive ear points have also been reported for changes in the electrodermal galvanic skin response and in pupillary constriction.
The N-VAS arterial waveform change becomes distinct in the pulse a few beats after stimulation of the skin over the car. The suggestion of different somatotopic patterns on the same auricular regions bothered many of Nogier's followers. The innovative collaborations between Nogier and Bourdiol had lasted from until That same year. After he traced the image of the spine and the limbs. He needed a few years. Nogier examined thoracic organs. Bourdiol wrote his own book.
This reflex established a stationary vascular wave. Loci auriculo- medicinae. For the purposes of this text. The journal Auriculo-medicine was also launched in The handbook to auriculotherapy.
Nogier reversed some of the description from his previous writings. Monitoring this N-VAS radial pulse reaction became the fundamental basis of auriculomedicine. Although Nogier had developed the three-phase model as a means of reconciling the differences between his findings and that of the Chinese.
This pulse reaction was later labeled the vascular autonomic signal VAS. This text continued to show that in the second phase. The most prominent feature of this auriculomedicine text. Bourdiol and the German physician Frank Bahr combined their efforts to publish an informative wall chart on ear localizations.
By Nogier presented his theory of three somatotopic phases on the ear and he discussed his concepts of electric. Bourdiol disassociated himself from Nogier.
Auriculotherapy Manual Chinese and Western Systems of Ear Acupuncture, Third Edition
Considerable confusion was generated when subsequent books on the Nogier phases on the ear seemed to contradict earlier writings. Elements of auriculotherapy. In this work. The most detailed presentation of the three phases was described by Nogier et al.
Nogier had created a teaching structure for training in auricular medicine. This work remains one of the most anatomically precise texts of the relationship of the auricle to the nervous system and includes detailed pictures of the external ear and its representation of the musculoskeletal system and visceral organs. These embryological correspondences to the ear were described by Nogier in another text.
Nogier suggested that each peripheral stimulation 'perceived at the pulse is at first received by the brain. Palpation of the N-VAS was used to determine changes in pulse amplitude or pulse waveform that were not related to fluctuations in pulse rate.
In honor of its discoverer. The N-VAS has been attributed to a general vascular-cutaneous reflex that can be activated by tactile. Widespread dissension within the European auriculomedicine movement occurred by the s Nogier He explored the chakra energy centers of ayurvedic medicine. Nogier discussed the importance of'reticular energy.
He had contributed the unique discovery of somatotopic correspondences to the external ear. Nogier was described as the 'Father of Auriculothcrapy. The World Health Organization held its meeting on auricular acupuncture nomenclature in Lyons. Raphael Nogier has become one of Europe's most prominent figures in the continued training of doctors in the practice of auricular medicine. Also a physician. After several previous WHO sessions that had been held in Asia. Both ear acupuncture and body acupuncture had their historical origins in ancient China.
A very personal account of the development and progress of auriculomedicine in Europe was presented in the book The man in the ear. At a international congress on auricular medicine in Lyons.
Many acupuncturists in England. The energetic theory of Paul Nogier had also been adopted by a non-medical school that used Nogier's name to develop more esoteric philosophies of auricular reflexotherapy. This observation can be repeated several times without the phenomenon diminishing. Ear acupuncture is said to directly connect to the yang meridians.
Yin meridians. There is no evidence of an auricular point if the corresponding part of the body is healthy. In ear acupuncture.
The size of a somatotopic area is related to its functional importance. The ear is a self-contained microsystem that can affect the whole body. The technology of recording this electrical activity from the skin has been used in the fields of psychology and biofeedback.
While body acupuncture can be very effective in relieving a variety of health problems.
The tenderness at an ear acupoint increases as the degree of pathology of the corresponding organ worsens. They are set at a fixed. The Large Intestines. Somatotopic inversion: In body acupuncture. Increased tenderness: Paul Nogier observed that there are some cases of patients with an exceptional sensitivity in which mere palpation of certain parts of the ear provoked a pronounced pain sensation in the corresponding body region.
Acupoints on the Large Intestines meridians and the Kidney meridians occur in locations far removed from those specific organs. A dull. A prominent difference between the systems is that body acupuncture points lie in the tendon and muscular region deep below the skin surface. Acupuncture points on the body can almost always be detected. Pathological correspondence: The main principle in auriculotherapy is a correspondence between the cartography of the external ear and pathological conditions in homologous parts of the body.
As with the somatotopic map in the brain. Distinct acupuncture points: The acupuncture points are anatomically defined areas on the skin. The original Chinese pictographs for acupoints indicated that there were holes in the skin though which qi energy could flow. There is not always a small. Sometimes electrodermal activity is inversely stated as higher skin conductance. Acupuncture points on the auricle only appear when there is some physical or functional disorder in the part of the body represented by that region of the ear.
The exact location of the ear point may shift from day to day. Electrical A sharp. Acupuncture meridians: Body acupuncture is based upon a system of 12 meridians. Further research has yielded even newer developments in auricular medicine. The head areas are represented toward the bottom of the ear. In traditional Chinese medicine. Decreased skin resistance: In both body and ear acupuncture. In this way. These exceptional patients have been found to demonstrate reactive points at precisely the predicted area on the auricle.
Pulse diagnosis: Both traditional Oriental medicine and auricular medicine utilize a form of diagnosis that involves palpation at the radial pulse on the wrist.
Remote control sites: Ear points are found at a considerable distance from the area of the body where the symptom is located.
Many patients are afraid of the insertion of needles into their skin. The ear points can remotely affect the flow of energy in meridian channels. Once treatment is applied to that ear point. When pathology of a body organ is represented at its corresponding auricular point. The subtle changes in auricular diagnosis may identify conditions of which the patient is only marginally aware. Ipsilateral representation: There are some patients who present with very unusual disorders in a specific region of their anatomy.
As an The practitioner discriminates changes in the reaction of the pulse to a stimulus placed on the ear. The N-VAS involves placement of only the thumb over the wrist. Types of procedures: Body acupuncture and ear acupuncture are often used with each other in the same session. These tactile sensations help to determine conditions of heat. While the auricle is also a physically small structure.
Even though body acupuncture also includes remote distal acupoints. Pathological ear points are notably more tender or have higher skin conductance than other areas of the auricle. The conductance in the flow of electricity increases as the pathology in the body increases. While the body acupoints occur directly within a meridian channel. Therapeutic proof: The second most convincing procedure to verify the existence of the correspondence between the location of auricular points and a particular part of the body is when specific regions of pain are immediately relieved by stimulation of the area of the external ear designated by established wall charts.
Classical acupuncture procedures for examining the pulse require the placement of three middle fingers over the wrist. Electrodermal point detection is one of the most reliable methods for diagnosing the location of an auricular point. Diagnostic efficacy: Ear acupuncture provides a more scientifically verified means of identifying areas of pain or pathology in the body than do such traditional Chinese medicine approaches as pulse diagnosis and tongue diagnosis. Auriculothcrapy can remotely stimulate a part of the body that is too painful to treat directly.
The latter patients have many body regions in pain. A new practitioner's confidence in auriculotherapy is strengthened by the recognition of reactive ear points for health conditions that were not previously reported by a patient.
Although very small in physical size because of their microchip circuitry. Body acupuncture points and ear acupuncture points can both be stimulated with the use of acupressure massage. As the body organ becomes healthier. In auricular diagnosis. Application to many disorders: Since every organ of the body is represented upon the external ear. The ear itself can sometimes become tender and inflamed after the treatment. Ease in treatment application: Ear acupuncture is often more economical and convenient to use than body acupuncture.
They affect deeper physiological changes by facilitating the natural self- regulating homeostatic mechanisms of the body. Ear acupuncture is certainly not limited to hearing disorders or even to problems affecting the head.
Each requires only 20 minutes of treatment.
Ease in mastery of skills: Because auricular reflex points arc organized in the same pattern as the gross anatomy of the body. The skin over the auricle is very soft and there is little danger of damaging a critical blood vessel when puncturing the ear skin with a needle.
Acupuncture and auriculotherapy treat the deeper. Insertion of needles into the ear is more simple to apply than is the use of needles at body acupoints. While pain relief is the more immediate effect. For sensitive patients. Side effects: The primary side effect of auriculotherapy is the piercing sensation that occurs at the time needles are inserted into the ear surface or when intense electrical stimulation is applied to an ear acupoint.
If the stimulation intensity is uncomfortable. The ear is easily available for diagnosis and treatment while someone is sitting in a chair or lying down in their street clothes. In contrast. Conditions treated by both ear and body acupuncture include appendicitis. Ear acupuncture needling is more often the treatment of choice for detoxification from substance abuse than is body acupuncture.
Ear acupuncture has been found to quickly relieve postoperative pain. Stimulating a given acupoint can either diminish overactive bodily functions or activate physiological processes that were deficient.
It readily can reduce inflammations. Clinical efficacy: Stimulation of ear reflex points and body acupoints seem to be equally effective treatments. Both body and car acupuncture arc utilized for treating a broad variety of clinical disorders. A muscle spasm reflex often seems to 'grab' the acupuncture needle and hold it in place when the tip of the needle is on the appropriate point. They should be offered the opportunity to rest for a while. This sedation effect has been attributed to the systemic release of endorphins.
The points on the ear are labeled with the organ or the condition that they are used to treat. As with body acupuncture. This post-treatment tenderness usually subsides within a short time. Auriculotherapy tends to relieve pain more rapidly than body acupuncture.
It is recommended that because auricular acupuncture can work more quickly than body acupuncture. Equipment required: Well-trained acupuncturists can detect body acupuncture points just by their palpation of the surface of the body or by the rotation of an inserted needle.
Auricular diagnosis. Both body acupuncture and ear acupuncture do more than just reduce the experience of pain. While there are over ear acupoints. Since body acupoints typically lie in the muscle region deep below the skin surface. Reactive ear reflex points can slightly shift in location from one day to the next.
The auricular skin surface. Electrical stimulation of ear acupoints. There may develop a new theoretical model which better accounts for the currently available data. Even in the West. The microcosm of each person is interrelated to the macrocosm of the world that surrounds them.
Micro-acupuncture is the expression of the entire body's vital qi energy in each major anatomical region. He labeled them micro-acupuncture systems to distinguish them from the traditional macro-acupuncture While it is observably evident that the ear is an organ for hearing. With a procedure as seemingly illogical as auriculotherapy. Europe and America about these multiple microsystems.
There is no present evidence which proves that one of these theories is more correct than another. Modern medicine accepts that the microorganism of each cell within the body is interrelated to the macroorganism of the whole body. For the whole of the organism to be in balance. Even when shown repeated clinical examples of patients who have benefitted from auricular acupuncture. Dr Ralph Alan Dale Dale has spent several decades accumulating clinical evidence from China.
In Oriental thinking. It may be a combination of all of these theories which ultimately accounts for the clinical observations which have been made. It does not seem common sense that it is possible to treat problems in the stomach or on the foot by stimulating points on the external ear.
Just as each cell has a protective membrane. Theoretical perspectives of auriculotherapy 2. The theories which are presented in this section are varied. The scalp microsystem is also represented upside down. Each region is a functional microcosm of the traditional energetics of the whole body.
Such is also the case with microsystem points. Every part of the body exhibits an energetic microcosm through micro-acupoints and micro- channels that reiterate the topology of the body. It is not the actual bone or muscle which is represented on the brain. Distinct verbalizations of discomfort indicate that the reactive ear point is tender to touch.
The tongue and teeth microsystems are presented horizontally.
Terry Oleson PhD
Microsystems tend to have bilateral effects. Only the scalp microsystem. These reflexes are both diagnostic and therapeutic. With the hands pointed downwards and the toes stretched out. Somatotopic reiteration: The microsystem reflex map of the body repeats the anatomical arrangement of the whole body. Figure 2.
These skin reactions are diagnostically useful for all the microsystems. When pressure is applied to a reactive microsystem point. Micro-acupuncture systems have been identified by Dale on the ear. Remote reflex response: Every microsystem manifests neurological reflexes that are connected with parts of the body remote from the anatomical location of that microsystem.
The locations of these distant tender spots are not due to random chance. Dale has identified specific principles regarding these micro-acupuncture systems that are presented below. Microsystems are similar to the somatotopic responses in the brain. They maybe activated by massage. Every micro-acupuncture system contains a distribution of acupoints that replicate the anatomy of the whole organism.
In some microsystems. Auricular representation is simply stronger on the ipsilateral ear than the contralateral ear.
Bi-directional connections: Pathology in a specific organ or part of the body is indicated by distinct changes in the skin at the corresponding microsystem point. In the auriculotherapy microsystem. Localized skin changes may include increased tenderness on palpitation. Organo-cutaneous reflexes: In this type of reflex. For the auricular microsystem. The term 'soma' refers to the word body. Super Anatomy. Fitzgerald called these systems Zone Therapy. Like Hirata.
Each of the 12 acupoints on these midline meridians resonates with one of 12 principal organs. Interactions between systems: All of the micro-acupuncture system interact with the macro- acupuncture systems.
Treatment of the overall macrosystem affects the functioning of the microsystems and treatment of any of the microsystems affects the functioning of the macrosystem and of the other microsystems. I have very high regard for the advanced level of information contained in this book. Dr Oleson states extremely well that there are two very different approaches to understand about auriculotherapy. One approach is Oriental, the other one is Occidental. The Oriental approach calls upon the basic concepts of classical acupuncture.
Most prominent are the concepts of yin and yang. In this Eastern approach towards auriculotherapy, the notion of 'energy' is omnipresent. The metaphysical view of the world and of man is the primary focus, even more prominent than the doctrines of physiology and anatomy. The Western approach towards auriculotherapy, that which Paul Nogier first proposed, rests upon the scientific method of observations, and the repetition of such observations.
It is also grounded upon the basic foundations of anatomy and physiology. In the Western approach, there is no notion of energy and no metaphysical philosophy that underlies this technique.
In fact, without going into details, the external ear has particular diagnostic and treatment properties because of its innervation and because of the presence of neuro-vascular complexes. These complexes are small, actual entities consisting of micro-hormones dispersed under the skin of the external ear.
There are actually two juxtaposed somatotopic systems which explain auriculotherapy as it is practiced today in Europe. The first system is based on nervous fibers distributed throughout the auricle and is purely a reflex.
It is with this system that one uses auriculotherapy to alleviate pain. The second system rests upon the existence of the neuro-vascular complexes discovered by the team of Pr Senelar: Odile Auziech, Claudie Terral.
On the external ear.
Tirelessly, he examined patients from Monday morning to Saturday evening, trying to understand and to cure their illnesses. One cannot understand the work of Paul Nogier without knowing his character. He was a man who spent much of his time proposing sometimes contradictory new ideas, the majority of which fell by the wayside. Nevertheless, his most original ideas remain: the somatotopic representations on the ear, the vascular autonomic signal, and the treatment effect of specific frequencies.
It is for these discoveries that many students followed him so devotedly. At the same time, confronted with so much apparent inconstancy, much of the teaching by this great master was not understood or fell out of favor This third edition of the Auriculotherapy Manual strives to bring closer together Western neurophysiological concepts and Oriental energetic concepts as they relate to auriculotherapy.
Perhaps only in California could one be able to do the work that he has done. In the third edition of this book, the origins of auriculotherapy are traced to historical sources in the West as well as China.
The use of acupuncture points on the external ear has had a long tradition in Oriental medicine, which expanded in a different direction with the introduction of the somatotopic ear charts developed by Paul Nogier.
At the same time, interest in auricular medicine brought greater attention to the practice of classical acupuncture in Europe. This book explores a broad range of theoretical perspectives that have been developed to understand the underlying bases of auriculotherapy. The somatotopic features of multiple micro-acupuncture systems, the relationship of ear acupuncture to other concepts in Oriental medicine, and holographic models are all described in a comprehensive manner.
Neurophysiological investigations of auricular acupuncture, and the role of hormonal substances such as endorphins, are substantiated with numerous scientific studies. Artistic illustrations revealing the anatomical regions of the external ear facilitate greater comprehension of the correspondences between the ear and the body.
The auricular zone system developed by Dr Oleson provides clinically useful reference guidelines for conducting auricular diagnosis and auriculotherapy treatments. The predominant portion of this book presents several hundred ear acupuncture points organized by major anatomical systems.
Auricular representation of the musculoskeletal system, visceral organs, endocrine glands, and the nervous system are differentiated by their anatomical location and clinical function.AuriculotherapyManual To modern readers, it might seem unusual t hat Communist political rhet oricis int egrat edwithin a medical text, but it must be remembered t hat t he Cold War in t he s great ly isolat ed China from West ern influences.
The latter patients have many body regions in pain. Dr Oleson states extremely well that there are two very different approaches to understand about auriculotherapy. The first recording of medical information by carvings on flat stones, turtle shells, and bamboo slips did not occur until BCE, and paper was not invented in China until CE. First molar Pancreas, stomach, right jaw, right Spleen, stomach, left jaw, left shoulder, right elbow, right hand shoulder, left elbow, left hand 7.
Jing Luo The original English translations of the zigzag lines drawn on Chinese acupuncture charts were described as meridians, alluding to the lines of latitude which circle the earth on geographic maps.
In this Eastern approach towards auriculotherapy, the notion of 'energy' is omnipresent. A reactive ear reflex point is said to show a yang react i on on the ear to signal a stress react i on in the correspondi ng area of the body.
The first recordingof medical informationbycarvings on flat stones, turtleshells, and bambooslips did not occur until BCE, and paper was not invented in China until CEo Acupunctureneedles were first made from bones and stones, and later from bronze metal.
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